Dr.ssa Michela Barducco

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Diario alimentare e trattamento del sovrappeso e dell'obesità

Posted on February 8, 2013 at 5:25 PM
Nel trattamento del sovrappeso e dell'obesità uno strumento molto utile è rappresentato dal diario alimentare.
Per riuscire a modificare qualsivoglia comportamento è premessa indispensabile la conoscenza approfondita di quel comportamento, che va pertanto osservato, prima ancora di essere modificato; è poi necessario individuare quelle condizioni in grado di favorire la comparsa del comportamento da modificare e che agiscono come rinforzo al suo mantenimento.   
L’automonitoraggio è utile sia per il paziente, per riflettere ed analizzare la propria situazione, sia per il terapeuta, per meglio definire i possibili interventi. 

Il diario alimentare, permettendo di individuare con chiarezza le abitudini errate, gli eventi e le emozioni che conducono all'assunzione di cibo e i sentimenti che vi si accompagnano, rappresenta uno strumento importantissimo per attuare un adeguato intervento di educazione alimentare fondato sulle reali condizioni del paziente. 

La compilazione del diario alimentare ha lo scopo di:
  • rendere consapevoli della quantità e della qualità del cibo che si consuma - molte persone  mangiano in maniera automatica e non sono completamente consapevoli del cibo consumato
  • evidenziare stili alimentari particolari - ad esempio il consumo di cibo in particolari momenti della giornata 
  • aiutare a distinguere la fame biologica dalla fame nervosa - alla fame biologica è giusto rispondere con il consumo di cibo, privilegiando alimenti a bassa densità energetica e limitando gli alimenti ad elevata densità energetica; alla fame nervosa o emotiva è più corretto dare risposte differenti
  • aumentare la capacità di autocontrollo
  1. il solo fatto di annotare gli alimenti assunti induce un aumento del grado di coscienza e di attenzione riguardo alle proprie abitudini alimentari, che di conseguenza tendono già spontaneamente a migliorare  
  2. il fatto di dover annotare gli alimenti sul diario può funzionare da deterrente nei confronti dell’assunzione di numerosi spuntini fuori pasto 
  3. identificando le situazioni a rischio per il consumo di cibo in eccesso sarà possibile apprendere le strategie utili ad affrontarle  

All'interno del diario andranno annotati di volta in volta:     
  • l’ora 
  • gli alimenti consumati, con la quantità indicativa 
  • l’eventuale cibo consumato in eccesso  
  • il contesto nel quale si sono assunti gli alimenti - utile ad identificare come eventuali persone presenti, determinate situazioni sociali, la solitudine possano influenzare le assunzioni alimentari
  • commenti - utili ad identificare il tipo di situazione ad alto rischio che ha portato a mangiare in eccesso, le emozioni che hanno determinato l’assunzione di cibo, le emozioni che l’hanno accompagnata e seguita, l'influenza degli stimoli interni ed esterni sull'assunzione alimentare, la presenza di pensieri distorti riguardo l'alimentazione   
Annotare gli alimenti consumati, con la quantità indicativa, permette di raggiungere quella consapevolezza della quantità e della qualità della propria alimentazione di cui si diceva sopra ed inoltre permette di individuare, se ce ne sono, quegli alimenti che più facilmente inducono all'eccesso. 
Per quanto riguarda l’ora, questa potrà rivelare la presenza di particolari stili alimentari, quali l’abitudine di mangiare in particolari momenti della giornata o di saltare la prima colazione o ancora di fare continui spuntini nell'arco della giornata, senza avere orari fissi per l’alimentazione; vi sono poi persone che, pur riuscendo a controllare la loro alimentazione durante il giorno, fanno un ricorso eccessivo al cibo la sera od ancora in momenti che non dovrebbero essere deputati al consumo di alimenti, come nel caso dei cosiddetti “mangiatori notturni”. 
Il contesto permette di individuare quei luoghi e quelle situazioni, oltre che la presenza di particolari persone, che sono più a rischio, dando così la possibilità di elaborare e mettere in atto comportamenti adeguati per quei luoghi e quelle situazioni.  
La colonna dei commenti tra l’altro permette di capire se la quantità di cibo consumato è legata a particolari situazioni in modo da trovare modi più funzionali per reagire a tali situazioni.

Categories: Sovrappeso e obesità

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