Dr.ssa Michela Barducco

Dietista, Naturopata, Counselor e Floriterapeuta

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Cosa è l'indice glicemico?

Posted on December 9, 2012 at 8:59 PM
L’indice glicemico o IG di un alimento misura il tempo impiegato da un alimento contenente carboidrati per trasformarsi in zucchero nel sangue; le persone con diabete dovrebbero preferire alimenti con un basso indice glicemico, o meglio pasti a basso indice glicemico e tenere in considerazione anche il carico glicemico.
L'indice glicemico serve ad indicare la velocità con la quale una quantità di quell'alimento contenente 50 g di carboidrati provoca un aumento della glicemia: non indica quanto aumenterà la glicemia, ma quando, in quanto tempo; l'indice glicemico è espresso in percentuale, in rapporto alla velocità con la quale aumenta la glicemia in seguito all'assunzione di 50 g di glucosio o di pane bianco, il cui indice glicemico è 100: si otterranno così 2 scale di misura nelle quali il valore 100 può esser assunto rispettivamente dal glucosio o dal pane bianco (se prendiamo come riferimento il pane bianco il glucosio avrà un indice glicemico di 138, se invece si prende come riferimento il glucosio questo avrà indice glicemico 100 e il pane bianco avrà un indice di 70).

  • Alimenti con indice glicemico molto basso - piselli secchi, lenticchie rosse, ciliegie, pompelmo
  • Alimenti con basso indice glicemico - fagioli secchi, lenticchie comuni, piselli in scatola,  pasta integrale, riso basmati, riso parboiled, muesli senza zucchero, kiwi
  • Alimenti a moderato indice glicemico - pizza, orzo perlato, castagne, riso integrale, pane integrale
  • Alimenti a indice glicemico alto - gnocchi, croissant, patate, zucca, carote, pane bianco

Nella realtà tuttavia un calcolo preciso dell'indice glicemico è praticamente impossibile oltre che di per sé non sufficiente:

  • non è sufficiente assumere alimenti a baso indice glicemico; dobbiamo tenere in considerazione anche il carico glicemico: moltiplicando l’indice glicemico di un alimento per la quantità di carboidrati presente in quell'alimento otterremo il carico glicemico che ci permette di prevedere l’andamento della glicemia postprandiale
  • dobbiamo prendere in considerazione l'indice glicemico dell'intero pasto: in generale possiamo dire che  più alimenti a basso indice glicemico sono contenuti in un pasto più basso sarà l'indice glicemico di quel pasto 
  • varietà diverse dello stesso alimento possono avere indici glicemici diversi: l'indice glicemico del riso varia da 48 a 112 a seconda del tipo e anche il grado di cottura incide (più un alimento è cotto più l’indice glicemico aumenta); nella frutta e nella verdura l'indice glicemico varia con il grado di maturazione.
  • un pasto contenente grassi insieme ai carboidrati avrà un indice glicemico inferiore rispetto all'introduzione dei soli carboidrati: quindi un alimento contenente zuccheri consumato da solo farà alzare la glicemia più rapidamente rispetto allo stesso alimento consumato all'interno di un pasto  completo o comunque contenente anche altri nutrienti

L'indice glicemico nella pratica è utile più che altro come linea guida, dunque è utile sapere quali alimenti sono ad alto indice glicemico e quali sono a basso indice glicemico ma è anche importante considerare l'alimentazione nel suo complesso: aggiungere fibre nei pasti ne abbassa l’indice glicemico, quindi cerchiamo di preferire i cereali (riso, pasta e altri cereali) integrali; aggiungiamo sempre buone quantità di verdure in modo da aumentare l'apporto di fibre e abbassare ulteriormente l'indice glicemico del pasto. Un pasto ben equilibrato tende ad avere automaticamente un indice glicemico non eccessivo: le fibre presenti nel contorno di verdura o in una zuppa di verdura ed eventualmente nei cereali integrali e i grassi utilizzati come condimento o presenti naturalmente negli alimenti, abbassano l’indice glicemico del primo o eventualmente del dolce o del cucchiaino di zucchero messo nel caffè a fine pasto. 

Categories: Risposte alle domande frequenti

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